Felt is a material that is made by condensing, pressing and matting the fibers together. This textile can be made of wool which is natural fiber and acrylic which is synthetic fiber. There are different kinds of felt s for technical, designer, craft and industrial use. Some felt materials are soft while others are rough and are used in construction materials. Felt can differ in terms of color, thickness, size, density, fiber content and some other factors depending on the usage of the material.
As certain felts are made by a number of different kinds of fiber, the fibers need to be blend together for which the raw fibers are placed inside an opened studded with nails, to make into a mass After blending into a mass the fibers need to be carded. The fibers are matted in a web in the carding machine.
Over the years certain changes have taken place in the making of felt. The felted textile is made by using pressure, moisture and heat to interlock and mat the fibers together. Earlier in the middle age the fur was removed by hand from the hide and hot water and pressure was applied with hands to shrink the fabric together manually. Whereas today machinery is used to do these tasks, but the requirement to make felt remains the same.
Felt is a kind of fabric that is made of animal hair or wool fibers by pressure and stream without knitting, weaving or spinning. Certain kinds of fibers like fur, wool and other kinds of hair fibers are joined together under a particular condition because of a specific feature and a massive degree of crimp.
Felt is made from wool, whose fiber mats and grips very conveniently along with a synthetic fiber which will give the felt longevity and resilience. Most of the times felt are made with a combination of wool and polyester or nylon and wool. Synthetic fibers cannot be felted by themselves, the synthetic material is required to combine with wool in order to make felt.
A technique called Carroting was being used from the mid of the 17th century to the mid of the 20th century. This process allowed to make good quality felt which was used to make hats for men. The skin of hares, rabbits, and beavers were used and were processed with a dilute content of mercury compound known as mercuric nitrate.